Arab traders saw well-developed currency, banking and shipping in Chittagong during the 9th century.
The Bengal Sultanate lost control of Chittagong in 1531 after Arakan declared independence and the established Kingdom of Mrauk U.The Mughals expelled the Portuguese from Chittagong.Mughal rule ushered a new era in the history of Chittagong territory to the southern bank of Kashyapnadi (Kaladan river). The Grand Trunk Road connected it with North India and Central Asia.The Port of Chittagong is the largest international seaport on the Bay of Bengal. Chittagong is reputed as a relatively clean city, but still confronts substantial logistical and socioeconomic problems.The mountainous hinterland of Chittagong is the most biodiverse region in Bangladesh, with 2000 endemic plants and various critically endangered wildlife.Chinese traveler Xuanzang described the area as "a sleeping beauty rising from mist and water" in the 7th century. It was the principal maritime gateway to the kingdom, which was reputed as one of the wealthiest states in the Indian subcontinent.Medieval Chittagong was a hub for maritime trade with China, Sumatra, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, the Middle East and East Africa. It is the capital of an eponymous district and division.The city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal.Modern Chittagong is an important economic hub in South Asia.It is home to the Chittagong Stock Exchange and many of Bangladesh's oldest and largest companies.