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Dating of exodus

The 15th century model, on the other hand, has not been given adequate consideration because of the perceived disparity between archaeological finds and the Biblical narrative at Jericho and Ai, which I have addressed elsewhere. USE OF THE NAME RAMESES IN EXOD Hoffmeier refers to Exod as “a foundational text” as, indeed, the 13th-century model hangs on this one verse of the Hebrew Bible.The mention of the Israelites building the city of Rameses places the exodus in the 13th century and makes Rameses II the most likely candidate for the Pharaoh of the exodus according to the adherents of this model.the earlier name with the later name in the majority of cases.A number of examples where the time of the name change can be reasonably ascertained are listed in Table 1 below.This was followed by an escalation of the oppression (Exod –14).

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As he himself demonstrated by his partial list of the occurrences of 40 years in the Hebrew Bible, which I provided in full, the use of the number is always associated with an elapsed period of time in the history of Israel and never as a generation.

Hoffmeier argues that when editorial updating of a placename occurs in the Hebrew Bible, the earlier name is given, followed by an editorial gloss stating the later name.

Since that is not the case with the name Rameses, no editorial updating has occurred and therefore it must be a contemporary name.

Hoffmeier believes that Hebrew slaves were involved in the construction of the new capital of Rameses II beginning ca. It is not feasible to fit the events of Exod – in a three-year timespan.

Following the building of Pithom and Rameses the Israelites experienced a growth in population: “the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread” (Exod ), which had to have taken place over a considerable period of time.


  1. In his introductory remarks in his response to my article critiquing the 13th century dating of the Biblical Exodus, 1 James Hoffmeier states, “It seemed trivial in his book Israel in Egypt to be preoccupied with when the exodus occurred while the real issue being debated is whether it happened at all!” emphasis in the original. 2 This statement

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